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the surge line is where the turbo will compressor surge if the pressure ratio is exceeded before that referenced rpm. This can happen if the turbo were to flow the volume of air, in cfm, that is referenced at that point, but the engine could not, so much that pressure would start to build up in a backwards manner, from the throttle body on back, until it reached the turbo, where it was greater than the actual pressure being created by the turbo. this causes the compressor wheel to spin/stall/spin/stall. almost like if you were to stop a house fan with your hand, about 100 times a second. this is very hard on the components, especially the shaft, becaue of the leverage placed on the end of the center shaft when this happens, it can bend the shaft and then cause the compressor wheel to contact the compress housing.

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